Third International Scientific and Practical Conference “Eagles of the Palearctic: Study and Conservation”

Raptors Conservation. Suppl. 2. Proceedings of Conferences

Retrofitting Errors in Bird Protection Devices

Dwyer J.F. (EDM International, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado, USA)

James F. Dwyer
Recommended citation: Dwyer J.F. Retrofitting Errors in Bird Protection Devices. – Raptors Conservation. 2023. S2: 409–410. DOI: 10.19074/1814-8654-2023-2-409-410 URL:

Pylons around the world are being retrofitted with Bird Protection Devices (BPDs) to reduce the risk of avian electrocutions. When installed correctly, BPDs can be highly effective. When installed incorrectly, however, BPDs may allow electrocutions to continue on retrofitted pylons. This presentation will provide examples of correctly and incorrectly installed BPDs to help audience members identify four categories of retrofitting errors: product design errors, mitigation plan errors, improvisation errors, and application errors. Product design errors occur when products do not sufficiently cover energized equipment. Mitigation plan errors occur when retrofitting plans do not consider all potentially dangerous locations on a pylon. Improvisation errors occur when home-made covers do not meet requirements for coverage, electrical resistance, environmental conditions, or durability. Application errors occur when appropriate materials or techniques are installed or applied incorrectly. After providing and explaining examples of each type of error, the audience will participate in identifying errors in photos of additional pylons.

Various options for modernizing birdhazardous power lines and elecrocuted birds. Arrows indicate retrofitting errors. Circles indicate correct retrofitting. Photos from: Dwyer et al., 2017 DOI: 10.3356/JRR-16-93.1 et al., 2017 DOI: 10.3356/ JRR-16-93.1